16. Mar 2015  |  Central Europe  |  Digital Agenda

Fragmented digital agenda in the V4 countries: how to go regional? 

The digital agenda became an important topic in Visegrad cooperation only in mid- 2014, when the Slovak Presidency put it forward among its priorities in its official program. Slovakia understood the vital importance of the digital economy as the driver of systemic change and as a new source of economic growth in the EU. As the digital economy expands, it has tried to promote this agenda on the V4 level.

It was an ambitious goal, given the fact that it is relatively new policy area on the EU level. So far, it has been addressed by the EU-28 member states as a national policy competence, thus creating differing national regulations and legal regimes.

The principal idea of the V4 Presidency was to find common ground on certain elements of the EU’s Digital Agenda and consider the possibility of cooperation in the innovative industries to boost innovation beyond the EU average. Previously, lack of joint EU policies left a huge amount of room to create a long-term basis for growth through an advanced regional digital agenda. Until 2014,  Visegrad as a region did little to articulate and represent its own interests in the rapidly evolving discussions around the EU’s Digital Agenda as the part of the Europe 2020 initiative.

Since the launch of the Slovak Presidency in July 2014, there has been strong political momentum in this policy area on the EU level. The Digital Single Market (DSM) took a prominent place in the new European Commission plans on how to reignite growth in EU economies. Indeed, DSM includes most of the elements of the EU’s Digital Agenda and the overall approach changed. The V4 thus needs to adapt and articulate its common interests in this ongoing debate in Brussels.

In this process, the Visegrad Group in general, and its current Slovak Presidency in particular, faces a major challenge. This is one of the most fragmented areas - both on the EU as well as regional levels – in which the Visegrad Group has ever launched its own policy initiative. As we show in this paper, in each V4 country the digital agenda is being covered by some 7-9 governmental agencies and ministries. At the same time, the leading institutions in one V4 country do not necessarily have their counterparts at their partner ministries in others. For instance, Poland has established its own Ministry of Administration and Digitalization, while in Slovakia the most active government agency dealing with digital economy has lately been the Ministry of Finance. The implementation level of national strategies also differs between V4 countries to a large extent.

Yet another challenge is presented by a very different performance and ranking of Visegrad countries in various aspects of digital agenda across the board, as illustrated in the following chart:

 Selected data:

Czech Rep.value

Hungary value

Slovakia value

Poland value

EU28 value

 

2014

2014

2014

2014

2014

Internet purchases by individuals in the last 3 months(in%)

25

20

31

24

41

Enterprises selling via internet and/or networks other than internet (in % )

27

10

12

10

15

Did not share files (in % of individuals)

17

17

27

31

25

Used internet storage space to save documents, pictures, music, video or other files (in % of individuals)

16

12

16

8

21

Households - level of internet access (in % )

78

75

75

78

81

Enterprises - level of internet access (in % )

98

88

98

93

97

Source: Eurostat, [2]

 

In this mapping paper, we decided to summarize the existing conditions on V4 country levels and identify several policy segments and overlaps for regional coordination. We have also tried to highlight different national interests of the V4 states in digital agenda. V4 country sections are followed at the end by short summary and recommendations.

 

POLAND AND THE DIGITAL AGENDA

Poland and the ICT sector

The ICT is one of the most innovative and growing sectors of the Polish economy. It contributed 7,9% towards the country’s GDP (2013) and its share is set to increase to 15% over the next 10 years. It accounts for 6,2% of Polish exports.[3]

The ICT market in 2013, depending on estimates, was worth between 15,7 billion EUR (European Information Technology Observatory) and 20,0 billion EUR (Polish Agency for Entrepreneurship Development) and was the 9th or 11th (respectively) biggest ICT market in Europe.

The sector provides 177,400 of jobs (1,1% of employment) in Poland. Close to 50,000 small and medium enterprises and 1,800 large firms operate within the sector (2,5% of all companies in Poland).

Total estimated value of the digital economy in Poland (revenues enabled/generated via the Internet) has doubled since 2006, reaching 93 billion PLN (approx. 23,0 billion EUR) accounting for 5,8% of the GDP in 2012. [4]

The 2013 Boston Consulting Group ‘e-Intensity Index’, measuring the relative maturity of Internet economies, has put Poland ahead of Hungary and Slovakia and behind the Czech Republic[5].

Despite this data, internet usage by  Polish society has been clearly lagging behind the European and V4 average on major indicators in the 2013 Digital Scorecard[6]:

Digital Agenda in Poland and the policy background

The cornerstone of  Polish government initiatives in the digital domain was  “The development strategy of the information society in Poland until 2013” (Strategia rozwoju społeczeństwa informacyjnego w Polsce do roku 2013) approved in December 2008. Its main tenets have been reinforced and advanced through the recommendations of a strategic foresight report “Poland 2030. The third wave of modernity” devised by the Board of  Strategic  Advisors to the Prime Minister in 2011, chaired by Minister Michał Boni.

In 2011 the Ministry of Administration and Digitalization was established following the government’s determination to remove strategic and operational deficits and advance various elements of Internet and telecommunications deployment.

In January 2014, the Council of Ministers approved the ‘National Broadband Strategy’ (Narodowy Plan Szerokopasmowy) for the years though 2020. The plan foresees that 100 % of households and companies should have access to internet connectivity of at least 30 Mbps by 2020 and 50 % of households and companies have access to internet connectivity of 100 Mbps by 2020.

The key document laying down the foundations for implementation of the Digital Agenda of the EU in Poland is the Operational Programme „Digital Poland” for years 2014-2020 under the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), approved by Commissioner Cretu on 8 December 2014. The programme, worth EUR 2,17 billion, rests on 3 pillars:

  • fast broadband deployment with most Polish households having access to high-speed broadband (particularly in rural and less populated areas)
  • e-services for public administration (50% of people and over 90% of companies using internet in contact with public administration);
  • digital skill of citizens and digital inclusion (increase of the share of regular internet users to above 80% and a sharp reduction in the number of people who have never used the internet);

In January 2015 the Committee of the Council of Ministers for Digitization has approved a Polish non-paper on completion of the Digital Single Market (DSM) entitled “Priorities of the Ministry for Administration and Digitization for programming works on the Digital Single Market in the European Union”. The document was published and entered into public consultations in February 2015.[7]

 Recommendations of the non-paper address a wide range of issues and most specifically:

  • Single Telecommunications Market: regulations to facilitate competitiveness, lowering barriers for broadband and ultra-speed Internet investments, net neutrality, abolishment of roaming charges;
  • Privacy and Personal Data Protection 
  • Trust & Cybersecurity: risks of Internet’s fragmentation, NIS directive, harmonization of ‘notice and takedown’ mechanism, etc.
  • European cross-border e-commerce parcels: ensuring coherence of regulations, consumers’ rights, monitoring mechanisms, etc.
  • IPR: consistency and cross-border access, cease geo-blocking and geographical discrimination
  • E-payments
  • Cloud and Big Data
  • Interoperability
  • Tax harmonization and tax avoidance
  • Competitiveness Policy including concentration
  • Capital access for start-ups including crowd funding
  • Non-European market access for European companies

From the Polish perspective we recommend the following three areas for possible improvement and cooperation amongst the V4 countries:

§  Supporting deployment of the high-speed Internet by households and individuals and the usage of mobile applications, cloud services and big and open data solutions via promoting and sharing best–practices, standards and utilization of European funds and programmes;

§  Facilitation of internalization of already existing and newly created small and medium enterprises (SME) via improved market access regulations, including non-European markets, within the framework of a Digital Single Market (DSM) conducive to market expansion and diversification;

§  Cooperation in a domain of cross-border R&D programmes and ventures aimed at better connectedness and integration of V4 markets and companies and e-commerce development.

SLOVAKIA AND THE DIGITAL AGENDA

Slovakia and the ICT sector

According to Slovakia Online - How the Internet Is Transforming the Slovak Economy by the Boston Consulting Group[8], the share of the Slovak internet economy made approx. 3,6% of its GDP (2012), however it is predicted that this is share is likely to grow to 4,5% of  GDP by 2015. In terms of employment, 3,3% of the employed population is engaged in ICT sectors (2011)[9]. Online purchases of its population reached 37%, business-to-business e-commerce 14% and government online intensity 64%, all of them still under the average of the EU Member States. According to the BCG’s e-intensity index (a country’s success in embracing internet access), Slovakia is lagging behind all V4 countries as well. [10] The total value of the Slovak ICT market is estimated to 5 billion EUR [11] and provides approximately 50.000 jobs in Slovakia. However, in terms of the share of ICT professionals in the total workforce, Slovakia ranked 4th among the European Union Member States. [12]

The demand for intensification of the online market is significant with an increasing trend, and therefore a more dynamic engagement of both the public and private sphere is needed.

Digital Agenda in Slovakia and the policy background

The central government body responsible for the information society is the Ministry of Finance of the Slovak Republic. [13]

There is a wide range of strategy documents approved by the Slovak government, which shall support internet economy and information society.

Information Society Strategy 2009 – 2013 (2009), an umbrella document aimed at prioritizing key issues related to the digital agenda and creating a timeframe for implementation for the previous EU programming period (the financial support from EU structural funds was 993 million EUR). The key issues were: broadband infrastructure, information security, eGovernment, eHealth, digital literacy and eEducation and, interestingly, reducing energy consumption and increasing energy efficiency.

Strategic Document for Digital Growth and Next Generation Access Infrastructure (2014 – 2020)  The Strategic Document for Digital Growth and Next Generation Access Infrastructure (2014 – 2020) – a strategic material prepared by the Ministry of Finance in order to fulfil the ex-ante conditions defined in  Thematic Objective 2 (Enhancing access to, use and quality of information and communication technologies), which  the European Union uses to evaluate the readiness of Member States to accomplish investment priorities in the programming period 2014 – 2020.

The Digital Agenda for Europe under Conditions in the Slovak Republic (2011) – a document provided by the Ministry of Finance to the Government, aimed to inform the Government about ongoing EU activities in the area of Information Society. The main message of the document is the necessity for an effective and coordinated approach among public institutions in implementing measures of the Digital Agenda for Europe. The document also highlights competences of particular ministries and government bodies for implementing activities defined in the Digital Agenda for Europe.

The Proposal for Centralization and Development of Data Centers in the Public Administration (2014) was a practical development aiming to centralize numerous public data centers into two data centers run by the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Interior. It will be operated as a single space providing cloud services to public authorities and institutions.

Major progress has been achieved in Slovakia in respect to the eGovernment project, the provision of electronic services of the public sphere. A launch of the electronic ID card (for authorization and authentification purposes) is soon expected. Joint modules of the central public sphere portal, a single point for accessing the electronic services of the public sphere, are being implemented.

Currently, one of the greatest priorities of the Slovak government within the digital agenda is to support young innovative companies – startups. The Ministry of Finance, in cooperation with the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Education, is preparing a national strategy for supporting startups through various financial and non-financial measures focused on improving the business environment and innovation potential of Slovakia.

Besides government initiatives, the private sphere has also been very active in improving Slovakia’s focus on the internet economy through the activities of SAPIE (The Slovak Alliance for Internet Economy). It was  established by Google, ESET and Neulogy and focuses on supporting three main areas of the internet economy: technical and creative education, boosting the startup ecosystem andusing e-commerce.

From the Slovak perspective we recommend the following areas for possible improvement and cooperation amongst the V4 countries:

  • Investing in education for developing ICT and entrepreneurial skills
  • Increasing expenditures in R&D activities through grants and financial instruments and a more efficient utilization of EU funds in this respect
  • A better cooperation of the ministries and agencies involved in supporting innovation policies
  • Coordination of government bodies and private sector representatives involved in the process of supporting information society in order to achieve increased cooperation and common planning for an effective and focused implementation of the digital agenda
  • Incorporating minimal standards of protection of consumer rights in e-commerce and further reduction of barriers for improved e-commerce activities in the V4 region
  • A better coordination of the startup support in the region and abroad, and joining forces to attract investors to the region
  • Collection, sharing and implementation of regional best practices from each country
  • A more efficient channelling of European structural funds for infrastructure development
  • Harmonization of policy documents, concepts and national regulations

CZECH REPUBLIC AND THE DIGITAL AGENDA

In the Czech Republic the share of GDP comprised of ICT is steadily growing. In 2011 it was about 4.2% (Česká internetová ekonomika, a 2013 study by EEIP a.s.), and the sector employed 3,24% of the total workforce[14]. The Czech Internet Development Association’s data show that the Internet economy’s added value is more than 350 billion CZK, 6.3% of jobs and rising. Sectors of the economy directly connected with the Internet amount to 3% of GDP, roughly about 115 billion CZ, which is more than financial services, insurance, or agriculture, and the indirect economic influence of the Internet is even higher.[15] This increasing trend and potential is not necessarily recognized by the government and executive agencies.

Even though the Czech government adopted two consecutive strategic documents on the digital agenda, i.e. Digital Czech Republic (2011) and Digital Czech Republic v. 2.0 (2013), the Internet economy still seems to be insufficiently promoted by officials, often limiting themselves to proclamations without proactive steps and measures not being implemented.

Digital Agenda in the Czech Republic and the policy background

It was only under pressure from ICT companies and associations that the current Czech government proclaimed support for the Internet economy as one of its priorities in its Policy Statement from February 2014. Two areas were chosen as focuses: (1) the support for the development of high-speed Internet infrastructure and (2) a strategy to increase digital literacy and develop the e-skills. The government plans to implement its ICT goals partially by means of the new Operational Program (OP) Entrepreneurship and Innovation for Competitiveness under the European Regional Development Fund.  One of priority fields in this OP is to facilitate entrepreneurship through high-speed Internet and expansion of ICT services.  Projects eligible for funding under this OP will include the development of broadband connections and high-speed Internet networks, development of ICT products and services and the support of e-commerce. If accepted by the European Commission, this OP will offer over 740 million EUR for such projects.

Whereas the modernization of infrastructure can be carried out mainly by private entities, also with the use of public European funds, the most significant obstacle for the internet economy lies elsewhere. The development of a far-fledged digital agenda in the Czech Republic is restrained by the dispersion of the digital agenda and respective competences among several ministries and government bodies. In September 2014 the ICT Union along with the Confederation of Industry and Transport and other associations called the government to act on the promise to advance the digital agenda in the Czech Republic. The Union indicated the following as the most imperative actions: (1) designate the executives responsible for the achievement of ICT goals, (2) define specific tasks and action plans, and (3) setting deadlines for their implementation. These goals remain unfulfilled to a great extent despite new governmental efforts to focus more intently on the digital agenda. Recently the Czech government has established the Council of the Czech Government for Information Society and the Council of the Czech Government for Competitiveness and Growth, the latter one meant to focus on the digital economy and creative industries. The fact that both Councils, independent of one-another, are supposed to tackle the digital agenda and digital economy respectively, proves just how scattered the agenda is.

However, the adoption of DSM as the key EU priority provides an opportunity to advance the coordination of the digital agenda among Czech government entities. Within the DSM, there are several areas viewed as priorities from the Czech perspective:

  •  Creation of a legal framework on the EU level that allows both for increasing the competitiveness of EU companies globally, and at the same time does not restrain permanent and rapid development of the digital economy ; the framework should leave as much room as possible for self-regulation.
  • Simplification of rules for cross-border and regional e-entrepreneurs: this huge area includes issues such as single online consumers, VAT issues (especial in regard to SMEs and star-ups), facilitation of procedures (all necessary information to be on-line and all administrative formalities to be conducted on-line),
  • Adaptation of IPR to the needs and functionalities of the EU digital single market
  • Promotion and support of e-skills: both on the level of education and promotion of ICT use by traditional industries.
  • Well-functioning and safe infrastructure.

Another external input for the Czech government may be its forthcoming Presidency of the Visegrad Group. The Czech government plans to introduce the digital agenda among its V4 Presidency priorities, albeit not the central one.

HUNGARY AND THE DIGITAL AGENDA

Hungary and the ICT sector

In Hungary ICT sector’s share of the total employment is 4,93% (2011) [16], which is significantly higher than in the other V4 countries.

According to the Ministry of Finance, the IT and info-communication sector provides 12% of the Hungarian GDP. Both in terms of employment and share of the GDP, this is not only beyond V4 average, but among the highest of the OECD countries and significantly beyond the EU average.

On the other hand Hungary is among the last ones in the V4 and in the EU when it comes to the number of companies selling online, and in terms of cross-border e-commerce (Poland has similar bad data).

Despite strong sectoral willingness, multiple issues hinder the smooth development of the sector. The most important element is the extra tax hitting the telecommunications industry that is both reducing profitability and  reducing infrastructural investments. This tax also  undermines predictability for investors. Although the Finance Ministry itself approves that OECD finding that penetration of the wide-range internet and GDP per capita shows strong correlation, the government started to support policy discussions only following the protests against the planned tax on internet (2014 November).

Based on research,[17] the gap in digital skills of Hungarian population compared to the EU average reduces the GDP by 0,74%.

Digital Agenda in Hungary and the policy background

The cornerstone of Hungarian initiatives concerning the Digital Agenda of the EU is the Hungarian National Info-communication Strategy, created in July 2013, for the EU budgetary period of 2014-2020. The document is based on a pillar structure approaching key questions such as digital infrastructure, digital competencies, digital economy and digital state on a pillar level, while also focusing on horizontal impacts such as R&D, security or e-inclusion.

The implementation of the strategy is the task of 5 different line ministries and about a dozen  state agencies, based on the pillar approach. It was based on and prepared as a follow up to basically all previous strategies on the field covering the above mentioned pillars.[18]

The Info-communication Strategy is supported by the national R&D Strategy: Investment to the Future- National R&D and Innovation Strategy 2020 [19], whose main goal is to raise R&D spending to 1,8% of the GDP, largely based on innovation invested in ICT. Also related to innovation, the National S3 Strategy was approved in November 2014. The innovation related policies are developed by the National Innovation Office, which was one of the key stakeholders on issues linking innovation and the digital agenda. In 2015 the office was integrated into the National Research, Development and Innovation Office.

As an important element of the digital agenda, industrial stakeholders formed the Future Internet Technological Platform and created the Future Internet Strategy and Action Plan.

In Hungary there is a wide consensus that startup activities and development policies should concentrate in Budapest. With that in mind, key stakeholders formed the BudapestHub working group that included, among others, representatives of the biggest startups, investment groups, startup clusters and associations, association of entrepreneurs, municipality representatives, and startup incubators. The BudapestHub together with the National Innovation Office and Ministry of National Economy, created the Runway Budapest 2.0.2.0.- StartUp Credo in November 2013.

From a Hungarian Perspective we highlight the following areas for possible cooperation:

  •  Common innovation based programs, support for cross-border R&D programs
  •  Cooperation in education and in improving ICT skills, with a special emphasis on  improved digital literacy
  •  Cooperation programs focusing on the elimination of barriers to e-commerce, by better connecting Visegrad markets
  •  Common marketing, support and representation of the V4 Startup companies and hubs, with the inclusion of key players from the market. 
  •  Creating common strategies to reform the EU agenda

Recommendations: what could be done at the V4 level

Based on the country level recommendations, we believe there are number of fields where cooperation could bring added value and support the implementation of national goals.

Due to the high number of stakeholders in every V4 country each tackling its piece of the digital pie, establishing an official coordinating body would be essential. This coordinating body should include governmental representatives of each V4 country as well as industrial stakeholders or digital platform representatives where this is applicable. Governmental representatives should be responsible for coordinating with national stakeholders (ministries, EU WG representatives, national embassies in Brussels and possibly MEPs). As the creation of the digital single market (DSM) is among the EC’s legislative priorities for 2015, it would be desirable if the V4 countries could produce a joint policy document (a non-paper) before May 2015 when the DSM package is expected to be announced.

The different results at Boston Consulting Group ‘e-Intensity Index’ or at the Digital Scoreboard suggests that V4 countries has different expertise, and each of them has its own areas of success, therefore collecting and sharing best practices could improve the implementation of national strategies. V4 level formats supporting sharing of best practices should be encouraged, based on successful NGO models, such as Bridge Budapest, which was also listed on the New Europe 100 list collecting some of the key innovators from the digital field.

One of the most common elements is the shared willingness in each and every V4 country to focus on startups as future backbones of innovation. Common PR, marketing, representation and capacity building of regional start-ups in the most important markets and most important start-up and tech hubs is the rational way to improve the effectiveness of national strategies. As part of the current V4 Presidency program, the Slovak Ministry of Finance initiated the V4 Start-up Task Force coordinating how to support the start-up ecosystems through better coordination of national regulatory frameworks and new financing instruments.  A common V4 strategic approach in this process is essential, both on the EU level as well as for attracting venture capital into the region.

While this segment presents future potential mainly through innovation, most of  the added economic value is provided through the digitalization of traditional business sectors and eCommerce. Dealing with practical matters (e.g. VAT registration) that can speed up cross-border eCommerce, also within the V4 region, would be extremely valuable. Incorporating minimal standards of protection of consumer rights in e-commerce and further reduction of barriers is essential according to every actor on this field. This should be very much in line with the ongoing developments of DSM. At this stage there is a limited willingness to harmonize data protection or telecom rules, but based on the developments within Europe, Visegrad can possibly push for deeper cooperation and quick implementation of the reforms.

V4 states should share the understanding that investing in education for developing ICT and entrepreneurial skills can also be more effective through cooperation. The existing mechanisms of university fellowships, both intra-Visegrad and the outgoing one of the IVF, should be adapted to the needs of the ICT sector. Member states should examine the possibility of providing fellowships to some of the most important international tech hubs and to the most influential companies, possibly by signing strategic partnerships with them. The Visegrad Fund already managing R&D related granting mechanisms vis a vis Taiwan, South Korea and Japan. It would make sense to create the internal equivalent as well to creative and digital industries. The region is behind the EU average when it comes to digital skills. Our vital interest within the DSM talks is to earmark the appropriate EU funding to the financial support of the implementation of European initiatives aiming to improve these skills.

Increasing expenditures in R&D activities through grants and financial instruments and a more efficient utilization of EU funds in this respect should be also examined. Currently EU projects and financial mechanisms fit more into the national environments and hardly any of them support cross-border imitative within the ICT sector.

Last but not least, it would be useful to conclude this initial period of V4 dialogue on thedigital agenda with a political signal and encouragement from the top level (V4 summit of Prime Ministers). This could be accompanied by a V4 program statement for the next period in this policy area. Ideally, it should come out after the EC’s proposal on DSM is published, and illustrate both the level of ambition as well as thematic focus (including specifying which segments of the DSM) could and should be developed further on a regional level. By definition, such a plan would require close coordination between the current and the upcoming V4 Presidencies (Slovakia and the Czech Republic).

Dániel Bartha is Director of Budapest based think tank Centre for Euro-Atlantic Integration and Democracy.

Milan Nič is Director of Bratislava based regional think tank Central European Policy Institute. 

This paper was prepared in partnership with: Aspen Institute, Prague; demosEUROPA- Centre for European Strategy (Poland) and  Centre for Euro-Atlantic Integration and Democracy (Hungary) within the framework of the project “Creating a digital agenda for Visegrad” supported by the International Visegrad Fund (IVF).


[1] We would like to thank Maria Staszkiewicz and Milan Zubíček (Aspen Institue–Prague) and Krzystof Blusz (demosEUROPA- Centre for European Strategy) for the inputs to the country sections. We would also like to thank the Ministry of Finance of the Slovak Republic for the comments.

[2]Data retrived on February 24th, 2015 from Eurostat Database

[3] Data quoted by  the Polish Ministry for Economy and  the Central Statistical Office (GUS) Source:  The Polish ICT Market 2014, Ministry for Economy, http://www.mg.gov.pl/node/20043

[4] Deloitte, A wave of digital change: Trends in digital e-Innovation 2013. A report, Warsaw 2013

[8] Boston Consulting Group, Slovakia Online - How the Internet Is Transforming the Slovak Economy, September 2012

[9] OECD (2015), ICT employment (indicator). doi: 10.1787/0938c4a0-en (Accessed on 24 February 2015)

[10] Boston Consulting Group, Slovakia Online - How the Internet Is Transforming the Slovak Economy, September 2012

[12] European Commission, Digital Scoreboard 2013

[13] Information on ICT sector by the Ministry available at www.informatizacia.sk

[14] OECD (2015), ICT employment (indicator). doi: 10.1787/0938c4a0-en (Accessed on 24 February 2015)

[16] OECD (2015), ICT employment (indicator). doi: 10.1787/0938c4a0-en (Accessed on 24 February 2015)

[17] eNET: A digitális írástudás fejlesztésének hatása a makrogazdaságra, Kutatás a Google Magyarország részére, 2012

[18] National Information Society Strategy  (2001), Hungarian Information Society Strategy  (2003),eGovernance Strategy and Action Plan (2005), National Broadband Strategy (2004), eEconomy  Action Plan (2009), Digital Literacy Action Plan (2009), Broadband Action Plan (2007), eGovernance Program (2008-2010), eGovernance 2010 Strategy (2008), Industrial Action Plan of the ICT Sector (2009), Digital Renewal Action Plan (2011)

[19] Befektetés a jövőbe - Nemzeti Kutatás-fejlesztési és Innovációs Stratégia 2020:  http://nkfih.gov.hu/szakpolitika-strategia/nemzeti-kfi-strategia/befektetes-jovobe-kfi